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Biomechanical Bibliography


At the biomechanics laboratory at Vassar College, we are assembling a bibliography that currently contains 653 items. It is arranged alphabetically by author. Since the comparative biomechanics of swimming is of particular interest to us, you'll find that subject well represented.

Because the construction of this bibliography is on-going, we would appreciate your help. If you know of important works on swimming biomechanics that are missing, please send the citations to John Long.


Adam, H. (1960). Different types of body movement in the hagfish, Myxine glutinosa L. Nature 188(4750), 595-596.

Adams, D.S., Keller, R. & Koehl, M.A.R. (1990). The mechanics of notochord elongation, straightening and stiffening in the embryo of Xenopus laevis. Development 110, 115-130.

Ahlborn, B., Chapman, S., Stafford, R., Blake, R.W. & D.G. Harper (1997). Experimental simulation of the thrust phases of fast-start swimming of fish. J. exp. Biol. 200: 2301-2312.

Ahlborn, B., Harper, D.G., Blake, R.W., Ahlborn, D. & Cam, M (1991). Fish without footprints. J. theor. Biol. 148: 521-533.

Aigeldinger, T.L. & Fish, F.E. (1995). Hydroplaning by ducklings: ovecoming limitations to swimming at the water surface. J. exp. Biol. 198, 1567-1574.

Aleev, Y.G. (1969). Function and gross morphology in fish. Keter Press, Jerusalem.

Alexander, R.McN. (1962). Visco-elastic properties of the body-wall of sea anemones. J. exp. Biol. 39, 373-386.

Alexander, R.McN. (1964). Visco-elastic properties of the mesoglea of jellyfish. J. exp. Biol. 41,363-369.

Alexander, R.McN. (1969). The orientation of muscle fibers in the myomeres of fishes. J. Marine Biol. Assoc. UK. 49, 263-290.

Alexander, R.McN. (1977). Mechanics and scaling of terrestrial locomotion. Pp. 93-110 In Scale Effects in Animal Locomotion (ed. T.J. Pedley). New York: Academic Press.

Alexander, R.McN. (1984). Elastic energy stores in running vertebrates. Am. Zool. 24, 85-94.

Alexander, R.McN. (1987). Bending of cylindrical animals with helical fibres in their skin or cuticle. J. theor. Biol. 124, 97-110.

Alexander, R.McN. (1989). Optimization and gaits in the locomotion of vertebrates. Physiol. Rev. 69, 1199-1227.

Alexander, R.McN., Dimery, N.J. & Ker, R.F. (1985). Elastic structures in the back and their role in galloping in some mammals. J. Zool., Lond. 207, 467-482.

Alfaro M. & Westneat, M.W. 1999. Motor patterns of herbivorous feeding: electromyographic analysis of biting in the parrotfishes Cetoscarus bicolor and Scarus iseri. Brain, Behav. Evolution 54(4), 205-222.

Altringham, J.D. (1994). How do fish use their myotomal muscle to swim? In vitro simulations of in vivo activity patterns. Pp. 99-110 In: Maddock, L., Bone, Q. & Rayner, J.M.V. Eds. (1994).

Altringham, J.D. & Johnston, I.A. (1990a). Modelling muscle power output in a swimming fish. J. exp. Biol. 148, 395-402.

Altringham, J.D. & Johnston, I.A. (1990b). Scaling effects on muscle function: power output of isolated fish muscle fibres performing oscillatory work. J. exp. Biol. 151, 453-467.

Altringham, J.D., Wardle, C.S. & Smith, C.I. (1993). Myotomal muscle function at different locations in the body of a swimming fish. J. exp. Biol. 182, 191-206.

Amundson, R. & Lauder, G.V. (1994). Function without purpose: the uses of causal role function in evolutionary biology. Biol. & Phil. 9, 443-469.

Archer, S.D. & Johnston, I.A. (1991). Kinematics of labriform and subcarangiform swimming in the Antarctic fish Notothenia neglecta. J. exp. Biol. 143, 195-210.

Arreola, V.I. & Westneat, M.W. 1996. Mechanics of propulsion by multiple fins: Kinematics of aquatic locomotion in the burrfish (Chilomycterus schoepfi). Proc. Roy. Soc., Lond. B. Bio. 263 (1377), 1689-1696.

Arkowitz, R. & S.A. Rommel (1985). Force and bending moment of the caudal muscles in the shortfin pilot whale. Mar. Mammal Sci. 1(3): 203-209.

Arnold, S.J. (1983). Morphology, performance and fitness. Am. Zool. 23, 347-361.

Bainbridge, R. (1958). The speed of swimming of fish as related to size and to the frequency and amplitude of the tail beat. J. exp. Biol. 35: 109-133.

Bainbridge, R. (1963). Caudal fin and body movement in the propulsion of some fish. J. Exp. Biol. 40, 23-56.

Bajd, T., M. Munih, A. Kralj, R. Savrin and H. Benko. (1995). Voluntary commands for FES-assisted walking in incomplete SCI subjects. Med. & Biol. Eng. Comput. 33, 334-337.

Ball, D. & Johnston, I.A. (1996). Molecular mechanisms underlying the plasticity of muscle contractile properties with temperature acclimation in the marine fish Myoxocephalus scorpius. J. exp. Biol. 199, 1363-1373.

Ballard, R.E., Aratow, M., Crenshaw, A., Styf, J., Kahan, N., Watenpaugh, D.E., & Hargens, A.R. (1992). Intramuscular pressure measurement as an index of torque during dynamic exercise. Physiol. 35(Supplement), 115-116.

Bandyopadhyay, P.R., Singh, S.N., Chockalingam, F. (1999). Biologically-inspired bodies under surface waves - Part 2: Theoretical control of maneuvering. J. Fluid Eng-T ASME 121(2), 479-487.

Bartelmez, G.M. (1915). Mauthner's cell and the nucleus motorius tegmenti. J. Comp. Neurol. 25, 87-128.

Batty, R.S. (1981). Locomotion of plaice larvae. Symp. zool. Soc. Lond. 48, 53-69.

Batty, R.S. (1984). Development of swimming movements and musculature of larval herring (Clupea harengus). J. exp. Biol. 110, 217-229.

Beddow, T.A. & Johnston, I.A. (1995). Plasticity of muscle contractile properties following temperature acclimation in the marine fish Myoxocephalus scorpius. J. exp. Biol. 198, 193-201.

Bennett, M.B., Ker, R.F. & Alexander, R. McN. (1987). Elastic properties of structures in the tails of cetaceans (Phocoena and Lagenorhynchus) and their effect on the energy cost of swimming. J. Zool., Lond. 211, 177-192.

Bernhard, R.R., Chitnis, A.B., Lindamer, L. & Kuwada, J.Y. (1990). Identification of spinal neurons in the embyonic and larval zebrafish. J. Comp. Neurol. 302, 603-616.

Biewener, A. A. and Gillis, G. B. 1999. Dynamics of muscle function during locomotion: accommodating variable conditions. J. exp. Biol. 202, 3387-3396.

Blake, R.W. 1976. On seahorse locomotion. J. Mar. Biol. Ass., UK 56, 939-949.

Blake, R.W. (1978). On balistiform locomotion. J. mar. bio. Ass. UK 57, 1047-1055.

Blake, R.W. (1979). The mechanics of labriform locomotion in the angelfish (Pterphyllum eimekei): an analysis of the power stroke. J. exp. Biol. 82, 255-271.

Blake, R.W. (1980). The mechanics of labriborm locomotion II: an analysis of the recovery stroke and the overall fin-beat cycle propulsive efficiency in the anglefish. J. exp. Biol. 85, 337-342.

Blake, R.W. (1981a). Mechanics of ostraciiform propulsion. Can. J. Zool. 59, 1067-1071.

Blake, R.W. (1981b). Influence of pectoral fin shape on thrust and drag in labriform locomotion. J. Zool., Lond. 194, 53-66.

Blake, R.W. (1981c). Mechanics of drag-based mechanisms of propulsion in aquatic vertebrates. Symp. zool. Soc. Lond. 48, 29-52.

Blake, R.W. (1983a). Swimming in the electric eels and knifefishes. Can. J. Zool. 61, 1432-1441.

Blake, R.W. (1983b). Fish locomotion. London: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Blake, R.W. (1986). Hydrodynamics of swimming in the water boatman, Cenocorixa bifida. Can. J. Zool. 64, 1606-1613.

Blickhan, R. & J-Y. Cheng (1994). Energy storage by elastic mechanisms in the tail of large swimmers - a re-evaluation. J. theor. Biol. 168: 315-321.

Blight, A.R. (1976). Undulatory swimming with and without waves of contraction. Nature 264, 352-354.

Blight, A.R. (1977). The muscular control of vertebrate swimming movements. Biol. Rev. 52, 181-218.

Block, B.A. (1986). Structure of the brain and eye heater tissue in marlins, sailfish, and spearfishes. J. Morph. 190, 169-189.

Block, B.A. (1991). Endothermy in fish: thermogenesis, ecology and evolution. Pp. 269-311 In: Hochachka & Mommsen (eds). Biochemistry and molecular biology of fishes, vol. 1. Elsevier Science Pub. B.V.

Block, B.A., Booth, D. & Carey, F.G. (1992a). Direct measurement of swimming speeds and depth of blue marlin. J. exp. Biol. 166, 267-284.

Block, B.A., Booth, D. & Carey, F.G. (1992b). Depth and temperature of the blue marlin, Makaira nigricans, observed by acoustic telemetry. Mar. Biol. 114, 175-183.

Block, B.A., Finnerty, J.R., Stewart, A.F.R. & Kidd, J. (1993). Evolution of endothermy in fish: mapping physiological traits on a molecular phylogeny. Science 260, 210-214.

Bone, Q. (1978). Locomotor muscle. Pp. 361-424 In W.S. Hoar & D.J. Randall (eds.): Fish Physiology, Vol. VII. Locomotion. New York: Academic Press.

Bone, Q. & Trueman, E.R. (1982). Jet propulsion of the calycophoran siphonophores Chelophyes and Abylopsis. J. mar. biol. Ass. UK. 62, 263-276.

Bone, Q. & Trueman, E.R. (1983). Jet propulsion in salps (Tunicata: Thaliacea). J. Zool. Lond. 201, 481-506.

Bowtell, G. & Williams, T. (1991). Anguilliform body dynamics: modelling the interaction between muscle activation and body curvature. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., Lond. B. 334, 385-390.

Brainerd, E.L. (1994). Mechanical design of polypterid fish integument for energy storage during recoil aspiration. J. Zool., Lond. 232, 7-19.

Brainerd, E.L. & Ditelberg, J.S. (1993). Lung ventilation in salamanders and the evolution of vertebrate air-breathing mechanisms. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 49, 163-183.

Brainerd, E.L., Liem, K.F. & Samper, C.T. (1989). Air ventilation by recoil aspiration in polypterid fishes. Science 246, 1593-1595.

Brainerd, E.L. & Patek, S.N. 1998. Vertebral column morphology, C-start curvature, and the evolution of mechanical defenses in tetraodontiform fishes. Copeia (4), 971-984.

Brandon, R.N. (1990). Adaptation and Environment. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

Braun, J. & Sambridge, M. (1995). A numerical method for solving partial differential equations on highly irregular evolving grids. Nature 376, 655-660.

Breder, C.M., Jr. (1926). The locomotion of fishes. Zoologica. 4(5), 159-312.

Breder, C.M. & Edgerton, H.E. 1942. An analysis of the locomotion of the seahorse, Hippocampus hudsonius, by means of high speed cinematography. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 43, 145-172.

Brett, J.R. (1964). The swimming energetics of salmon. Sci. Am. 213, 80-85.

Brill, R.W. (1987). On the standard metabolic rates of tropical tunas, including the effect of body size acute temperature change. Fish. Bull. 85(1), 25-35.

Brill, R.W. (1996). Selective advantages conferred by the high performance physiology of tunas, billfishes, and dolphin fish. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 113A.

Brill, R.W. & Bushnell, P.G. (1991). Metabolic and cardiac scope of high energy demand teleosts, the tunas. Can. J. Zool. 69, 2002-2009.

Brill, R.W. & Dizon, A.E. (1979). Red and white muscle fibre activity in swimming skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis (L.). J. Fish Biol. 15, 679-685.

Brill, R.W., Holts, D.B., Chang, R.K.C., Sullivan, S., Dewar, H. & Carey, F.G. (1993). Vertical and horizontal movements of striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax) near the Hawaiian Islands, determined by ultrasonic telemetry... Mar. Biol. 117, 567-574.

Bronmark, C. & Miner, J. (1992). Predator-induced phenotypical change in body morphology in crucian carp. Science 258, 1348-1350.

Canfield, J.G. & Rose, G.J. (1993). Activation of Mauthner neurons during prey capture. J. Comp. Phys. A. 172, 611-618.

Carling, J.C., Bowtell, G. & Williams, T.L. (1994). Swimming in the lamprey: modelling the neural pattern generation, the body dynamics and the fluid mechanics. Pp. 119-132 In: Maddock, L., Bone, Q. & Rayner, J.M.V. Eds. (1994).

Carling, J.C., Williams, T.L. & G. Bowtell (1998). Self-propelled anguilliform swimming: simultaneous solution of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and Newton's laws of motion. J. exp. Biol. 201, 3143-3166.

Carrier, D.R. (1983). Postnatal ontogeny of the musculo-skeletal system in the black-tailed jack rabbit (Lepus californicus). J. Zool., Lond. 201, 27-55.

Carrier, D.R. (1984). The energetic paradox of human running and hominid evolution. Curr. Anthr. 25, 483-495.

Carrier, D.R. (1987a). Lung ventilation during walking and running in four species of lizards. Exp. Biol. 47, 33-42.

Carrier, D.R. (1987b). The evolution of locomotor stamina in tetrapods: circumventing a mechanical constraint. Paleobiology 13(3), 326-341.

Carroll, R.L. (1988). Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. New York: W.H. Freeman.

Chayen, N.E., Rowlerson, A.M. & Squire, J.M. 1993. Fish muscle structure – fiber types in flatfish and mullet fin muscles using histochemistry and antimyosin antibody labeling. J. Muscle Res. Cell M. 14(5), 533-542.

Cheng, J.-Y. & Blickhan, R. (1994a). Note on the calculation of propeller efficiency using elongated body theory. J. exp. Biol. 192, 169-177.

Cheng, J.-Y. & Blickhan, R. (1994b). Bending moment distribution along swimming fish. J. Theor. Biol. 168, 337-348.

Cheng, J.-Y., Davison, I.G. & DeMont, M.E. (1996). Dynamics and energetics of scallop locomotion. J. Exp. Biol. 199, 1931-1946.

Cheng, J.-Y. & DeMont, M.E. (1996). Jet-propelled swimming in scallops: swimming mechanics and ontogenic scaling. Can. J. Zool. 74: 1734-1748.

Cheng, J.-Y. & DeMont, M.E. (1997). A predicted in vivo muscle force-velocity trajectory. Can. J. Zool. 75(3), 371-375.

Cheng, J.-Y., Pedley, T.J. & Altringham, J.D. (1998). A continuous dynamic beam model for swimming fish. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 353, 981-997.

Chopra, M.G. (1974). Hydromechanics of lunate-tail swimming propulsion. J. Fluid Mech. 64, 375-391.

Chopra, M.G. (1976). Large amplitude lunate tail theory of fish locomotion. J. Fluid. Mech. 74, 161-182.

Chopra, M.G. (1977). Hydromechanics of lunate tail swimming propulsion: Part 2. J. Fluid Mech. 79, 49-69.

Cohen, A.H., Ermentrout, G.B., Kiemel, T., Kopell, N., Sigvardt, K.A. & Williams, T.L. (1992). Modelling of intersegmental coordination in the lamprey central pattern generator for locomotion. TINS, 15(11), 434-438.

Compagno, L.J.V. (1979). Carcharhinoid sharks: morphology, systematics, and phylogeny. Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University.

Coughlin, D.J. (2000). Power production during steady swimming in largemouth bass and rainbow trout. J. exp. Biol. 203, 617-629.

Coughlin, D.J., Zhang, G. & Rome. L.C. (1996). Contraction dynamics and power production of pink muscle of the scup (Stenotomus chrysops). J. exp. Biol. 199, 2703-2712.

Coughlin, D.J., Valdes, L. & Rome, L.C. (1996). Muscle length changes during swimming in scup: sonomicrometry verifies the anatomical high-speed cine technique. J. exp. Biol. 199, 459-463.

Covell, J.W., Smith, M., Harper, D.G. & Blake, R.W. (1991). Skeletal muscle deformation in the lateral muscle of the intact rainbow trout Onchorynchus mykiss during fast start maneuvers. J. exp. Biol. 156, 453-466.

Crenshaw, H.C. (1992). A technique for tracking spermatozoa in three dimensions without viscous wall effects. Proc. VI Int. Congress Spermatology. Siena, Italy: Raven Press.

Crenshaw, H.C. (1993a). Orientation by helical motion. I. Kinematics of the helical motion of organisms with up to six degrees of freedom. Bull. Math. Biol. 55(1), 197-212.

Crenshaw, H.C. (1993b). Orientation by helical motion. II. Changing the direction of the axis of motion. Bull. Math. Biol. 55(1), 213-230.

Crenshaw, H.C. (1993c). Orientation by helical motion. III. Microorganisms can orient to stimuli by changing the direction of their rotational velocity. Bull. Math. Biol. 55(1), 231-255.

Crenshaw, H.C. (1996). A new look at locomotion in microorganisms: rotating and translating. Amer. Zool. 36, 608-618.

Crowder, L.B. & Cooper, W.E. (1982). Habitat structural complexity and the interactions between bluegills and their prey. Ecology 63, 1802-1813.

Curtin, N.A., Kushmerick, M.J., Wiseman, R.W. & Woledge, R.C. (1997). Recovery after contraction of white muscle fibres from the dogfish. J. exp. Biol. 200, 1061-1071.

Curtin, N.A. & Williams, T.L. (1990). Force during shortening and stretch of active muscle fibers isolated from the lamprey, Ichthyomyzon unicuspis. J. Physiol. 430, 67P.

Curtin, N.A. & Woledge, R.C. (1996). Power at the expense of efficiency in contraction of white muscle fibres from dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula. J. exp. Biol. 199, 593-601.

Czuwala, P.J., Blanchette, C., Varga, S., Root, R.G. & Long, J.H. Jr. (1999). A mechanical model for the rapid body flexures of fast-starting fish. Proc. 11th Int'l. Symp. Unmanned Untethered Submersible Technology (UUST), 415-426.

Czuwala, P.J., Long, J.H. Jr., Koob-Emunds, M. and T.J. Koob. (2000). Hydrostatic pressure variations within the hagfish (Myxine glutinosa) notochord. TheBulletin, Mt. Des. Is. Bio. Lab. In Press.

Daniel, T.L. (1981). Fish mucus: in situ measurements of polymer drag reduction. Biol. Bull. 160, 376-382.

Daniel, T.L. (1983). Mechanics and energetics of medusan jet propulsion. Can. J. Zool. 61, 1406-1420.

Daniel, T.L. (1984). Unsteady aspects of aquatic locomotion. Am. Zool. 24, 121-134.

Daniel, T.L. (1985). Cost of locomotion: unsteady medusan swimming. J. exp. Biol. 119, 149-164.

Daniel, T.L. (1988). Forward flapping flight from flexible fins. Can. J. Zool. 66, 630-638.

Daniel, T.L. (1995). Invertebrate swimming: integrating internal and external mechanics. Pp 61-89 In Biological Fluid Dynamics (Eds., Ellington, C.P. and T.J. Pedley), Symposia of Soc. Exp. Biol. XLIX.

Daniel, T.L., Jordan, C. & Grunbaum, D. (1992). Hydromechanics of swimming. In: Advances in Comparative and Environmental Physiology Vol.11, Mechanics of Animal Locomotion (ed. R. McN. Alexander).

Daniel, T.L., Kingsolver, J.G. & Meyhofer, E. (1989). Mechanical determinants of nectar-feeding energetics in butterflies: muscle mechanics, feeding geometry, and functional equivalence. Oecologia 79, 66-75.

Daniel, T.L. & Meyhofer, E. (1989). Size limits in escape locomotion of carridean shrimp. J. exp. Biol. 143, 245-265.

Daniel, T.L. and M.S. Tu. (1999). Animal movement, mechanical tuning and coupled systems. J. exp. Biol. 202: 3415-3421.

Daniel, T.L. & Webb, P.W. (1987). Physical determinants of locomotion. In Comparative Physiology: Life in Water and on Land (ed. P. Dejours, L. Bolis, C. R. Taylor, and E. R. Weibel), pp. 343-369. New York: Liviana Press.

Davison, W. 1987. The median fin muscles of the leatherjacket, Parika scaber (Pisces, Balistidae). Cell Tissue Res. 248(1), 131-135.

D'Août, K. and P.A. Aerts. 1999. kinematic comparison of forward and backward swimming in the eel Anguilla anguilla. J. exp. Biol. 202: 1511-1521

DeMont, M.E. (1990). Tuned oscillations in the swimming scallop Pecten maximus. Can. J. Zool. 78, 786-791.

 

DeMont, M.E. and J.M. Gosline (1988). Mechanics of jet propulsion in the hydromedusan jellyfish Polyorchis penicillatus. III. A natural resonating bell and the importance of a resonant phenomenon in the locomotor structure. J. exp. Biol. 134: 347-361.

Den Hartog, J.P. (1949). Strength of Materials. London: Constable & Co. Ltd.

Den Hartog, J.P. (1956). Mechanical Vibrations. 4th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Denny, M.W. (1988). Biology and the Mechanics of the Wave-Swept Environment. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

Denny, M.W. (1994). Extreme drag forces and the survival of wind- and water-swept organisms. J. exp. Biol. 194, 97-115.

Denny, M.W. (2000). Limits to optimization: fluid dynamics, adhesive strength and the evolution of shape in limpet shells. J. exp. Biol. 203, 2603-2622.

Denny, M.W. and Blanchette, C.A. (2000). Hydrodynamics, shell shape, behavior and survivorship in the owl limpet Lottia gigantea. J. exp. Biol. 203, 2623-2639.

Dewar, H. & Graham, J.B. (1994a). Studies of tropical tuna swimming performance in a large water tunnel. I. Energetics. J. exp. Biol. 192, 13-31.

Dewar, H. & Graham, J.B. (1994b). Studies of tropical tuna swimming performance in a large water tunnel. III. Kinematics. J. exp. Biol. 192, 45-59.

Dewar, H., Graham, J.B. & Brill, R.W. (1994). Studies of tropical tuna swimming performance in a large water tunnel. II. Thermoregulation. J. exp. Biol. 192, 33-44.

Dial, K.P. (1992). Activity patterns of the wing muscles of the pigeon (Columbia livia) during different modes of flight. J. Exp. Zool. 262, 357-373.

Diamond, J. (1971). The Mauthner cell. Pp. 265-346 In Fish Physiology. V. (eds. Hoar, W.S. & Randall, D.J.).

Diamond, J. & Yasargil, G.M. (1969). Synaptic function in fish spinal cord: dendritic integration. Prog. Brain Res. 31, 201-209.

Dickinson, M.H. (1996). Unsteady mechanisms of force generation in aquatic and aerial locomotion. Am. Zool. 36, 537-554.

Domenici, P. & Blake, R.W. (1991). The kinematics and performance of the escape response in the angelfish (Pterophyllum eimikei). J. exp. Biol. 156, 187-205.

Domenici, P. & R.W. Blake (1997). The kinematics and performance of fish fast-start swimming. J. exp. Biol. 200: 1165-1178.

Drucker, E.G. (1996). The use of gait transition speed in comparative studies of fish locomotion. Am. Zool. 36(6), 555-566.

Drucker, E.G. & Jensen, J. 1996. Pectoral fin locomot6ion in the striped surfperch. I. Kinematic effects of swimming speed and body size. J. exp. Biol. 199, 2235-2242.

Drucker, E.G. and Lauder, G.V. (2000). A hydrodynamic analysis of fish swimming speed: wake structure and locomotor force in slow and fast labriform swimmers. J. exp. Biol. 203, 2379-2393.

Eaton, R.C., Bombardieri, R.A. & Meyer, D.H. (1977). The Mauthner initiated startle response in teleost fish. J. exp. Biol. 66, 65-81.

Eaton, R.C. & Emberley, D.S. (1991). How stimulus direction determines the trajectory of the mauthner-initiated escape response in a teleost fish. J. exp. Biol. 161, 469-487.

Eaton, R.C., Farley, R.D., Kimmel, C.B. & Schabtach, E. (1977). Functional development in the Mauthner cell system of embyos and larvae of the zebrafish. J. Neurobiol. 8, 151-172.

Eaton, R.C., Lavender, W.A. & C.M. Wieland (1981). Identification of Mauthner-initiated response patterns in goldfish: evidence from simultaneous cinematography and electrophysiology. J. Comp. Physiol. 144, 521-531.

Eaton, R.C. & Hackett, J.T. (1984). The role of the Mauthner cell in fast-starts involving escape in teleost fishes. Pp. 213-266 In Neural Mechanisms of Startle Behavior (ed. Eaton, R.C.). New York: Plenum Press.

Eaton, R.C., Lavender, W.A. & Wieland, C.M. (1981). Identification of mauthner-initiated response patterns in goldfish: evidence from simultaneous cinematography and electrophysiology. J. Comp. Physiol. 144, 521-531.

Eaton, R.C., Lavender, W.A. & Wieland, C.M. (1982). Alternate neural pathways initiate fast-start responses following lesion of the Mauthner neuron in goldfish. J. Comp. Physiol. A. 145, 485-496.

Eaton, R.C. & Nissanov, J. (1985). A review of Mauthner-initiated escape behavior and its possible role in hatching in the immature zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio. Env. Biol. Fish. 12, 265-279.

Ekeberg, O. (1993). A combined neural and mechanical model of fish swimming. Biol. Cybern. 69, 363-374.

Ellerby, D.J., Altringham, J.D., Williams, T. and Block, B.A. (2000). Slow muscle function of Pacific bonito (Sarda chiliensis) during steady swimming. J. exp. Biol. 203, 2001-2013.

Ellington, C.P. (1984a). The aerodynamics of hovering insect flight. V. A vortex theory. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 305, 115-144.

Ellington, C.P. (1984b). The aerodynamics of hovering insect flight. VI. Lift and power requirements. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 305, 145-181.

Ellington, C.P. (1984c). The aerodynamics of flapping animal flight. Am. Zool. 24, 95-105.

Emerson, S.B. & Koehl, M.A.R. (1990). The interaction of behavioral and morphological change in the evolution of a novel locomotor type: "flying" frogs. Evol. 44(8), 1931-1946.

Ermentrout, G.B. & Kopell, N. (1990). Oscillator death in systems of coupled neural oscillators. SIAM J. Appl. Math. 50(1), 125-146.

Ermentrout, G.B. & Kopell, N. (1991). Multiple pulse interactions and averaging in systems of coupled neural oscillators. J. Math. Biol. 29, 195-217.

Etnier, D.A. and W.C. Starnes. (1993). The fishes of Tennessee. The University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee.

Farley, C.T., Blickhan, R., Saito, J. & Taylor, C.R. (1991). Hopping frequency in humans: a test of how springs set stride frequency in bouncing gaits. J. Appl. Physiol. 71(6), 2127-2132.

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