The Wealth of Nations
Man's Disposition to Barter
[T]he propensity to truck, barter, and exchange one thing for another. . . is common to all men, and
is to be found in no other race of animals, which seem to know neither this nor any other species of
contracts. Nobody ever saw a dog make a fair and deliberate exchange of one bone for another with
another dog. Nobody ever saw one animal by its gestures and natural cries signify to another, this is
mine, that yours; I am willing to give this for that. When an animal wants to obtain something, either
of a man or another animal, it has no other means of persuasion but to gain the favour of those whose
service it requires. A puppy fawns upon its dam, and a spaniel endeavors by a thousand attractions to
engage the attention of its master who is at dinner, when it wants to be fed by him. Man sometimes
uses the same arts with its brethren, and when he has no other means of engaging them to act
according to his inclinations, endeavors by every servile and fawning attention to obtain their good
will. He has not time, however, to do this upon every occasion. In civilized society, he stands all the
time in need of the cooperation and assistance of great multitudes, while his whole life is scarce
sufficient to gain the friendship of a few persons.
Pursuit of Self-Interest Leads to the Social Good
In almost every other race of animals each individual, when it is grown up to maturity, is entirely independent, and in its natural state has occasion for the assistance of no other living creature. But man has almost constant occasion for the help of his brethren, and it is in vain for him to expect it from their benevolence only. He will be more likely to prevail if he can interest their self-love in his favour, and show them that it is for their own advantage to do for him what he requires of them. Whoever offers to another a bargain of any kind, proposes to do this. Give me that which I want, and you shall have this which you want, is the meaning of every such offer; and it is in this manner that we obtain from one another the far greater part of those good offices which we stand in need of. It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest. We address ourselves, not to their humanity but to their self-love, and never talk to them of our own necessities but of their advantages.
Nobody but a beggar chooses to depend chiefly upon the benevolence of his fellow citizens. Even a beggar does not depend upon it entirely. The charity of well-disposed people, indeed, supplies him with the whole fund of his subsistence. But though this principle ultimately provides him with all the necessities of life which he has occasion for, it neither does nor can provide him with them as he has occasion for them. The greater part of his wants are supplied in the same manner as those of other people, by treaty, by barter, and by purchase. With the money which one man gives him he purchases food. The old clothes which another bestows upon him he exchanges for other old clothes which suit him better, or for lodging, or for food, or for money, with which he can buy either food, clothes, or lodging, as he has occasion.
As it is by treaty, by barter, and by purchase, that we obtain from one another the greater part of
those mutual good offices which we stand in need of, so it is this same trucking disposition which
originally gives occasion to the division of labour. In a tribe of hunters or shepherds a particular
person makes bows and arrows, for example, with more readiness and dexterity than any other. He
frequently exchanges them for cattle or for venison with his companions; and he finds at last that he
can in this manner get more cattle and venison than if he himself went to the field to catch them. From
a regard to his own interest, therefore, the making of bows and arrows grows to be his chief business,
and he becomes a sort of armourer. Another excels in making the frames and covers of their little huts
or moveable houses. He is accustomed to be of use in this way to his neighbours, who reward him in
the same manner with cattle and with venison, till at last he finds it his interest to dedicate himself
entirely to this employment, and to become a sort of house carpenter. In the same manner, a third
becomes a smith or a brazier; a fourth a tanner or dresser of hides or skins, the principal part of the
clothing of savages. And, thus, the certainty of being able to exchange all that surplus part of the
produce of his own labour, which is over and above his own consumption, for such parts of the
produce of other men's labour as he may have occasion for, encourages every man to apply himself to
a particular occupation, and to cultivate and bring to perfection whatever talent or genius he may
possess for that particular species of business.
Exchange as a Necessary Prerequisite of Efficient Division of Labor
The difference of natural talents in different men is, in reality, much less than we are aware of; and
the very different genius which appears to distinguish men of different professions, when grown up to
maturity, is not upon many occasions so much the cause, as the effect of the division of labour. . . .
[D]ifferent tribes of animals, however, though all of the same species, are of scarce any use to one
another. The strength of the mastiff is not in the least supported either by the swiftness of the
greyhound, or by the sagacity of the spaniel, or by the docility of the shepherd's dog. The effects of
those different geniuses and talents, for want of the power or disposition to barter and exchange,
cannot be brought into a common stock, and do not in the least contribute to the better accommodation
and convenience of the species. Each animal is still obliged to support and defend itself, separately and
independently, and derives no sort of advantage from that variety of talents with which nature has
distinguished its fellows. Among men, on the contrary, the most dissimilar geniuses are of use to one
another; the different produces of their respective talents, by the general disposition to truck, barter
and exchange, being brought, as it were, into a common stock, where every man may purchase
whatever part of the produce of other men's talents he has occasion for.
The Invisible Hand
In that rude state of society in which there is no division of labor, in which exchanges are seldom made, and in which every man provides everything for himself, it is not necessary that any stock should be accumulated or stored up beforehand, in order to carry on the business of the society. Every man endeavors to supply by his own industry his own occasional wants as they occur. When he is hungry, he goes to the forest to hunt; when his coat is worn out, he clothes himself with the skin of the first large animal he kills; and when his hut begins to go to ruin, he repairs it, as well as he can, with the trees and the turf that are nearest it.
But when the division of labor has once been thoroughly introduced, the produce of one man's own labor can supply but a small part of his occasional wants. The far greater part of them are supplied by the produce of other men's labor, which he purchases with the produce, or what is the same thing, with the price of the produce of his own.
Every individual is continually exerting himself to find out the most advantageous employment for whatever capital he can command. It is his own advantage, indeed, and not that of society, which he has in view. But the study of his own advantage naturally, or rather, necessarily leads him to prefer that employment which is most advantageous to the society.
He generally, indeed, neither intends to promote the public interest nor knows how much he is
promoting it. By preferring the support of domestic to that of foreign industry, he intends only his own
security; and by directing that industry in such a manner as its produce may be of the greatest value,
he intends only his own gain, and he is in this, as in many other cases, led by an invisible hand to
promote an end which was no part of his intention. Nor is it always the worse for the society that it
was no part of it. By pursuing his own interest, he frequently promotes that of the society more
effectually that when he really intends to promote it. I have never known much good done by those
who affected to trade for the public good. It is an affectation, indeed, not very common among
merchants, and very few words need be employed in dissuading them from it.
The Functioning of Markets
The market price of every particular commodity is regulated by the proportion between the quantity which is actually brought to the market and the demand of those who are willing to pay the natural price of the commodity.
. . . [W]hen the quantity of any commodity which is brought to market falls short of the effectual demand, all those who are willing to pay the whole value of the rent, wages, and profit which must be paid in order to bring it thither cannot be supplied with the quantity which they want. Rather that want it altogether, some of them will be willing to give more. A competition will immediately begin among them, and the market price will rise more or less above the natural price, according as either the greatness of the deficiency or the wealth and wanton luxury of the competitors happen to animate more or less the eagerness of the competition.
. . . [W]hen the quantity brought to market exceeds the effectual demand, it cannot be all sold to
those who are willing to pay the whole value of the rent, wages, and profit which must be paid in
order to bring it thither. Some part must be sold to those who pay less, and the low price which they
give for it must reduce the price of the whole.
On the Role of Government
Great nations are never impoverished by private, though they sometimes are by public, prodigality and misconduct. The whole, or almost the whole, public revenue is in most countries employed in maintaining unproductive hands. Such are the people who compose a numerous and splendid court, a great ecclesiastical establishment, great fleets and armies, who in time of peace produce nothing, and in time of war acquire nothing which can compensate the expense of maintaining them, even while the war lasts. Such people, as they themselves produce nothing, are all maintained by the produce of other men's labour.
When all systems either of preference or of restraint are taken away, the obvious and simple system of natural liberty establishes itself of its own accord. Every man, as long as he does not violate the laws of justice, is left perfectly free to pursue his own interest his own way and to bring both his industry and capital into competition with those of any other man or order of men. The sovereign is completely discharged from a duty, in the attempting to perform which he must always be exposed to innumerable delusions and for the proper performance of which no human wisdom or knowledge could ever be sufficient - the duty of superintending the industry of private people and of directing it toward the employments most suitable to the interest of the society. According to the system of natural liberty, the sovereign has only three duties to attend to; three duties of great importance, indeed, but plain and intelligible to common understandings: first, the duty of protecting the society from the violence and invasion of other independent societies; secondly, the duty of protecting, as far as possible, every member of the society from the injustice or oppression of every other member of it, or the duty of establishing an exact administration of justice; and thirdly, the duty of erecting and maintaining certain public works and certain public institutions.