ANSWERS: Geographic Placemarks for Principles of Environmental Science

 

Chapter 1

Understanding Our Environment

 

Grinnell glacier, Montana  p. 6

1. A lake of ponded melt water that has run off the glacier.

2. Current length: < 700 m; historic length: > 1300 m; the glacier is about half as long as it was.

3. Sediment from the glacier. Note that lower lakes are darker and clearer, not milky with silt.

4. Streams would shrink dramatically with less ice to feed them.

5. Water resources would decrease greatly. This is becoming a problem in many places that depend on glacial melt for water.  

 

Tuvalu p. 6

1. An atoll is a thin, low-lying ring with a big lagoon in the middle

2. about half/ no

3. the air strip/ no

4. they'd have to get in and out by boat

5. 1,000 km to Suva (capital of Fiji); 3,000 km to Australia

6. there are lots but none large or near; any nearby names will do

 

Barrow, Alaska  p. 6

1. About 2.5 km

2. The landing strip of the airport; infrastructure like this can be especially susceptible to buckling as permafrost melts.

3. This patterned ground is characteristic of permafrost in tundra areas. It is formed by cracking and heaving of the ground as ice near the surface melts and freezes. They suggest some of the instability of this frozen ground.

 

Marine Resources, California  p. 7

1. San Francisco

2. No, the islands are very dry, steep, and small. There are a few houses, but no evidence of economic activity on shore.

3. No, there is access to most of the areas and settlement or other activities adjacent to them. Fishing is restricted and destruction of aquatic resources, but people still have access to these areas for recreation. 

 

Paradigm shifts: Valley of Yosemite National Park p. 41

1. the flat valley floor is forested; the walls of the valley are too steep for trees, since these are largely U-shaped glacial valley walls. If you look outside the park, you’ll see forested hill slopes with V-shaped valleys eroded by running streams. There the slopes are less vertical and can support trees.

2. The light-colored patches are clear-cuts in the forest. If zoom out and in and look around, you can find other areas that have been logged, though other parts of California have more evidence of logging. Yosemite was established as a park mainly to prevent logging in its high valleys. The curvy, narrow lines near the Dorrington marker are roads cut into the forest to access new housing developments, an expanding use of these remote areas. News reports about the economic cost of wildfires in California often include concerns about increasing settlement in and near forest areas.

 

 

Chapter 2

Environmental Systems

 

Arcata, California  p. 26

1. The bay is broad and shallow, and its outlet is a long way from the city. Thus any nutrients released by a treatment plant would remain in the bay. Dramatic eutrophication would result from the nutrients in urban effluent. Recall that secondary treatment doesn’t remove nutrients. Expensive tertiary treatment would be required for this, making proper treatment of Arcata’s wastewater especially expensive.

2. In a small town, the tax base is small, and infrastructure is remote, which makes building a treatment plant still more expensive.

3. Humboldt Bay, on which Arcata sits, is an unusual shallow, tidal bay for this stretch of California’s coast. Often unusual situations such as this force people to find innovative solutions to common problems.

 

Excessive nutrients: Bohai Bay, Caspian Sea, p 33

1. Beijing lies about 130 km northwest of the bay.

2. The algal bloom is usually concentrated in protected areas where water circulation is slight. The middle of Bohai Bay, where there is some water exchange with the sea outside the bay, is much more blue because of lower algae concentrations.

3. No, other algal blooms can be seen near Shanghai, another large city which lies at the mouth of the Chang Jiang (Yangtze River). Algal blooms are more common in enclosed, shallow bays, but they may happen in more open areas, as well, where nutrient inputs are especially high.

4. The lower reaches of the Volga are not heavily farmed, but the upper reaches have concentrated agriculture for a thousand km or more. This situation is similar to the Mississippi basin, which drains millions of square km of farmlands in the upper Midwest and Great Plains. In both rivers, then, the main cause of eutrophication is far from the place where the problem occurs. The Gulf of Mexico is the water body that receives Mississippi runoff and has a seasonal dead zone following spring runoff from Midwestern farm fields upstream.

 

Niagara Falls p. 34

1. Lake Erie is above the falls; Lake Ontario is downstream

2. The surface of the water is about 172 m at the tip of Goat Island and 110 below the falls. The official height of the falls is 54 m high because of the rocks at the bottom.

3. Kinetic energy

4. Potential energy

 

 

Chapter 3

Evolution, Species Interactions, and Biological Communities

 

Cedar Creek Natural History Area  p. 49

1. A mixture of woods (mostly hardwoods with some conifers) and farm fields

2. About 30 m

3. Biodiversity appears to increase resilience to drought, because plots with more species (in graph) had little change in biomass production when the drought occurred.

4. The artificial environment of a greenhouse could give very different results than those in a more natural situation.

 

Galapagos p. 53

1. Seven but there are actually at least 19 named islands.

2. Ecuador

3. Isla Isabella

4. 1,000 km; this distance makes it difficult for new species to reach the islands. As a consequence, a large portion of resident species evolved in place and occur nowhere else.

Challenge question: the volcanic cones on Isla Isabella (and elsewhere) suggest that these are volcanic islands that rose from the sea floor. They were never connected to another land mass, so it is clear that all organisms either arrived from across the ocean or evolved in place here.

 

Lake Victoria p. 54

1. about 1,000

2. these lakes were formed by a rift (breaking apart) of the tectonic plates that make up this part of Africa. These lakes therefore have little connection to other freshwater systems, so few fish species were able to migrate in from elsewhere; instead fish diversified in the lakes.

3. Many states border these lakes, including  Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Most of these states have some amount of poverty and internal instability, which can make them unable to establish effective protection of resources within their boundaries. Protecting shared resources is still more challenging in this situation.

 

Symbiosis: the Great Barrier Reef p. 59

1. Mutualism: each benefits the other. Mutualism is one form of symbiosis, or living together without competing

2. Commensalism

3. Agriculture and urban

4. Maintaining land cover and avoiding soil disturbance can reduce erosion. Barriers that slow runoff can trap sediment.

 

 Mountaintop removal  p. 70

1. The scar irregular in shape depending on the topography of the mountain and the shape of the coal seam.

2. At least 10 km

3. Northeastern West Virginia

4. The Appalachian Mountains

 

 

Chapter 4

Human Populations

 

Shantytowns of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and Mumbai, India p. 80 

1. for most Americans, even for most urban residents, density is much lower.

2. Many forces lead people to these towns: peasants and farmers often become landless when wealthier landowners take their land, legally or not; many rural people move to cities in search of wealth, which may be better even in these shantytowns compared to their rural villages. Many children are born and grow up in these slums, and for them, leaving is very difficult.

3. Many forces keep people in these neighborhoods. The chief reasons are often poverty and the unavailability of better housing in other parts of the cities. Low-income people often need assistance to get into safer housing, and few developing countries have been able to invest in subsidizing housing. In some cases, police keep poor populations in these neighborhoods, as they protect the wealthier parts of town.

4. Answers will depend on which city students examine. In most cases, it is not hard to find the dense, irregular pattern of shantytowns in these cities. 

 

Kibera neighborhood, Nairobi, Kenya p. 80

 

1. Answers may vary, but golfers may consider Kibera residents lower class and possibly a threat because of the income differences; very likely the golfers consider the expanding shantytown to be a source of instability for the planned open space of the golf course and the relatively undeveloped areas on the outskirts of the city.

2. Answers may vary, but Kibera residents may consider golfers to be wealthy and possibly a powerful elite who control the city. Certainly the golfers have access to more space for recreation than the Kibera residents have for living.

3. The wide, straight streets outside of Kibera are designed for easy vehicle access, but they require that pedestrians move long distances to get places. The narrow roadways of a shantytown evolve mainly through building of people who cannot afford vehicles, and we might guess that they are too crowded for easy car access most of the time. These streets might be a better scale for foot traffic.

4. There are a number of other densely, irregularly  built neighborhoods on the outskirts of Nairobi.

 Challenge question: the Rift Valley (about 20 km from Nairobi) formed when the tectonic plate began to tear apart, then stopped tearing. The stair-step pattern represents layers of material deposited by volcanic upwelling during the tearing process. If you look carefully, you can see round volcanic craters in the valley floor.

5. Nairobi is in south-central Kenya, not far from Tanzania.

 

 

Chapter 5

Biomes and Biodiversity

 

Tellico Dam  p. 120

1. The right (east) side is upstream: you can tell because the impounded river is wide and looks like a lake; downstream of the dam the river is narrow and looks more like a river.

2. Knoxville

3. This location is in a rural area that is not widely known or highly populated. Often major policy debates are decided according to precedents established in these obscure locations and cases.

4. The Supreme Court decided that a federal committee could override the ESA for economic reasons. This was a precedent that has been a factor in interpreting the ESA ever since.

 

 

Chapter 6

Environmental Conservation

 

Yellowstone National Park  p. 142

1. Old Faithful, which is famous for its tall plumes of steam that occur several times daily.

2. An extensive network of sidewalks, roads, parking lots, lodges, and service buildings is needed to accommodate tourists.

3. In the Man and Biosphere Reserves, the central area is supposed to be kept pristine and visits are limited to scientific research. Native people continue to live in the peripheral area and can farm there or follow other sustainable lifestyles. In Yellowstone, and most other American National Parks, the heart of the area is allocated to tourist facilities, while native peoples have been entirely removed.

4. Yellowstone Lake is 2,357 m above sea level.

Challenge question: The lake is rainwater collected in an ancient caldera. (A caldera is a collapsed volcanic crater.)

 

Great Barrier Reef  p. 144

1. 60-80 km

2. Queensland

3. South of Brisbane, the shallow continental shelf disappears, so that the ocean floor is too deep to support coral growth (see discussion in chapter 5). The southeastern coast is also exposed to colder ocean currents. Since coral growth requires warm, shallow, clear water, cold currents diminish coral growth.

4. Economic benefits are chiefly tourism and fisheries. The reef also provides some protection to the coast, helping to reduce erosion and storms, which cause costly damage.

 

 

Chapter 7

Food and Agriculture

 

Cerrado, Brazil p. 150

1. Almost none. All the land has been converted to crop fields.

2. Paraguay and Bolivia

3. Southeast

4. The white fishbone pattern is cleared roads and fields. This pattern of expanding forest clearing that follows new road construction has been a major form of rainforest clearing in the Amazon.

5. Santarem’s port allows ships to travel about 640 km (400 mi) inland, as the crow flies.

 

Feedlot, Kansas p. 155

1. Individual steers or their shadows

2. This is where feed is distributed

3. The biggest risk for the workers at the facility and their families. However, drug-resistant pathogens could spread from workers to others in their community and around the world.

4. There are several within a few miles of this site, which may be found by looking around the area.

5. This area has very little surface water (rivers or lakes). Consequently nearly all water is groundwater, from underground aquifers, in particular the Ogallala/High Plains regional aquifer system.

 

Aquaculture: Fish farm, China p. 157

1. Hong Kong

2. The Chinese are very fond of seafood. With 10 million people living in Hong Kong and another 10 million on the mainland in Shenzen and Guangzhou, there is a high demand for seafood in this area.

3. Saltwater. This is an island in the Pacific Ocean

4. This location is protected from storms, waves, and strong currents that could damage pens and free the captive fish.

5. Fish farming has enormous environmental consequences that many of us ignore. These include depletion of wild fisheries for fish food; pollution from fish waste; widespread use of antibiotics and other chemicals; escape of domestic varieties that may compete with wild fish; and concentrated host populations for fish parasites that then infect wild populations.

6. Disney World, China

 

 

Irrigation, Kansas p. 163

1. These automated center-pivot irrigators, traveling in a circle from a central pump, irrigate extensive area without direct supervision. They can traverse rough ground that would be inaccessible by flood irrigation. The farmer has to maintain the equipment but otherwise this method of irrigation allows one or two people to irrigate many square miles of ground without assistance.

2. About half the landscape consists of green irrigated circles.

3. Answers will vary; this would be a good discussion question, because opinions may differ regarding future water availability or energy costs

4. Answers will vary, but this is an important discussion question.

5. Each circle is 0.25 mi2 in diameter: four circles make up a “section”, or one square mile of land. These units are the basis of the land survey system that covers most of the American Midwest and West.

 

Contour plowing p. 169

1. Some fields are flat while others are hilly.

2. Strips are about 30 m (100 ft) across.

3. Rough-textured green areas are forests.

4. The Mississippi river is just north of this site.

5. Contour plowing slows the loss of soil (and moisture) from fields to the river. Topsoil lost from plowed fields is one of our primary sources of water pollution, as well as a looming threat to agricultural production. 

 

 

Chapter 8

Environmental Health and Toxicology

 

Feedlots, California’s Central Valley p. 178

1. Manure lagoons, to hold waste from the cattle in the pens

2. The feedlots in this area are surrounded by crop fields (or orchards), which grow fresh produce consumed across the country.

3. Resolving these contradictory demands is an urgent question for policy makers and consumers today. Students should discuss this problem to imagine some possible solutions. The problem is not easy—if it were, it would have already been settled.

 

 Love Canal, NY  p. 185

1. The houses were torn down at the Love Canal site.

2. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) was passed in response to Love Canal and similar problems. This act created the Superfund, which provides funding to clean up such toxic sites

3.  Expectations and standards for housing safety vary individually. The federal government has recently ruled that the houses are sufficiently safe.

 

Cancer Alley p. 185

1. Oil storage tanks are round and white; dark round tanks of a water treatment system are just east of the largest tank collection; train cars to deliver materials and remove goods run through the middle of the complex; black holding ponds contain either rain runoff or processing effluent or both; employee parking lots are on the northwest corner; other features may be hard for most students to identify, but they may be interesting to look at even so.

2. Depending on where you look you can find dozens of oil and gas fields in this area. Oil and gas are therefore a major natural resource in this area as well as the dominant industrial manufacturing activity. This economic importance makes these industries politically powerful in this area.

3. About 18, though answers may vary slightly. Oil storage and petro-chemical facilities line much of the river from Baton Rouge to New Orleans.

 

Norilsk nickel smelter, Russia p. 186

1. Mines where the ore is dug for the factories

2. You can see various features, including a gray pall over most buildings and the lack of greenery—indicates chronic poor air quality, lack of evidence of outdoor recreation facilities, even a lack of walkable-scale environments. The housing consists of large, tall (given the shadows) apartment buildings, interspersed with parking lots. Because of the latitude, about 88 degrees N, workers are probably constrained to be indoors much of the year, which would be unhealthy in a situation where smoking and drinking are common.]

3. When the ground is saturated, waterborne contaminants move easily through ground water and among closely-spaced water bodies

4. When administrative authorities are far distant, and when there is no population whose jobs are not dependent on the plant, there is no population to object to pollution, and there is no authority to complain to. Plants in more populated regions are more likely to face objections from the population. In the Soviet system under which this area was designed, or in a company town, complaining about environmental quality was not necessarily an easy task. Residents often say, “Siberia is vast and Moscow is far away.”

5. It’s hard to know exactly where the metals we use comes from, especially since most consumer goods we use are now made overseas somewhere. Whether we bear responsibility for the working and environmental conditions in the places where the stuff we use is made depends on your ethical and moral outlook.

 

Herbicide exposure in the Corn Belt: Melvin Iowa p. 190

1. In general there are 10-20 houses per square mile.

2. This farming landscape covers most of this region of the continent. Throughout this landscape, the risk of exposure to farm chemicals affects a large population, including anyone who drinks well water or works with chemicals. In some cases airborne exposure is also a risk.

3. Answers will depend on the region where students live.

4. There are many strategies for reducing exposure, including reducing use and choosing alternative farming methods. Because of the size of loans and land costs, as well as conventional knowledge about farm economics and costs, as well as the relatively low (but chronic) level of health costs for most of the population, it is very difficult for farmers to make such transitions, however.

 

 

Chapter 9

Air and Climate

 

 Vostok Station, Antarctica   p. 332

1. The elevation at Vostok is 3,488 m above sea level. This elevation is extremely high for human habitation and causes headaches and nosebleeds for researchers at the station

2. Depends on where you live, but chances are that you’re at a much lower elevation.

3. This location gives a deep ice record, among other advantages

4. 78 degrees S

5. About 62 degrees S, at the tip of the Palmer Peninsula

 

 Mt. Kilimanjaro  p. 209

1. About 3 degrees N

2. The central depression on the mountain top is the volcanic crater

3. No. Kilimanjaro is unique in that it stands alone in the African plain.

4. Tanzania

5. Complete loss of snowpack on the mountain is likely to reduce water supplies in streams running from the mountains. While this region receives substantial rainfall, mountain snowpack is an important water source in many regions.

 

Grinnell glacier, Montana  p. 209 (see also chapter 1)

1. A lake of ponded melt water that has run off the glacier.

2. Current length: < 700 m; historic length: > 1300 m; the glacier is about half as long as it was.

3. Sediment from the glacier. Note that lower lakes are darker and clearer, not milky with silt.

4. Streams would shrink dramatically with less ice to feed them.

5. Water resources would decrease greatly. This is becoming a problem in many places that depend on glacial melt for water.  

  

 Tuvalu p. 211 (see chapter 1)

1. An atoll is a thin, low-lying ring with a big lagoon in the middle

2. about half/ no

3. the air strip/ no

4. residents would have to get in and out by boat

5. 1,000 km to Suva (capital of Fiji); 3,000 km to Australia

6. there are lots but none large or near; any nearby names will do

 

Free Air Carbon Enrichment studies (FACE)  p. 212

1. About 30 m

2. Plots with greater diversity respond more to increases in CO2, increases in N, and increases in both CO2 and N. This suggests that in a CO2-rich atmosphere (such as is being produced by burning fossil fuels), high-diversity communities will grow better than low-diversity communities. While most plants grow better under elevated CO2 levels, the nutritional quality of their biomass often declines. Furthermore, for all species except legumes, nitrogen quickly becomes limiting under this faster growth.

3. The artificial environment of a greenhouse could give very different results than those in a more natural situation.

 

Sudbury, Ontario  p. 363

1. About 20 km to find green, normal forest

2. From the southeast (notice smoke plume)

3. Mid-morning (note the position of the smokestack shadow)

4. The Adirondack Mountains are about 500 km southeast of Sudbury. Such a distant cause is rarely obvious or easy to identify when you see trees dying in a local area. The long distances between cause and effect often make air pollution a difficult problem to identify and control.

 

 

Chapter 10

Water Resources and Pollution

 

Aral Sea, Lake Chad p. 240

1. The Aral Sea sits at the intersection of Kazakhstan (to the north) and Uzbekistan (to the south). 

2. The island has grown as the shallow water has receded, exposing more and more lakebed. The island is only about 4 km from the southern shore; it used to be over 60 km from that shore.

3. The drying lake left salts that color the landscape different shades of white, gray, brown, and other colors.

 

Go to the Lake Chad place marker.

4. The lake used to be over 200 km long; now it is about 50 km wide.

5. Chad, Niger, Nigeria, and Cameroon border Lake Chad.

6. Lake Chad lies in the southern reaches of the Sahara Desert, one of the world’s driest regions. This dry location makes water shortages especially severe in this area.

 

 Three Gorges Dam p. 241

1. The dam and the Three Gorges are on the Chang Jiang (Yangtze River), in Hubei Province.

2. West of the dam are rugged mountain ridges, through which the river passes. East of the dam, the landscape levels out within about 50 km. You can see the river widening and meandering as it crosses the relatively level plains. The dam thus captures the river as it leaves the mountains, just before it widens out into agricultural plains.

3. Roughly 1,000 km.

4. Chongqing is approximately 400 km from the dam in a straight line. Following the river, the distance depends on how detailed the line is, but the total distance is roughly 600 km

5. The dam is 30 degrees N       

6. Beijing is 39.5 degrees N. Students should find their own latitude and compare.

7. Answers will depend on where students live.

 

 Excessive nutrients: Bohai Bay, Caspian Sea, p 246

1. Beijing lies about 130 km northwest of the bay.

2. The algal bloom is usually concentrated in protected areas where water circulation is slight. The middle of Bohai Bay, where there is some water exchange with the sea outside the bay, is much more blue because of lower algae concentrations.

3. No, other algal blooms can be seen near Shanghai, another large city which lies at the mouth of the Chang Jiang (Yangtze River). Algal blooms are more common in enclosed, shallow bays, but they may happen in more open areas, as well, where nutrient inputs are especially high.

4. The lower reaches of the Volga are not heavily farmed, but the upper reaches have concentrated agriculture for a thousand km or more. This situation is similar to the Mississippi basin, which drains millions of square km of farmlands in the upper Midwest and Great Plains. In both rivers, then, the main cause of eutrophication is far from the place where the problem occurs. The Gulf of Mexico is the water body that receives Mississippi runoff and has a seasonal dead zone following spring runoff from Midwestern farm fields upstream.

 

 Acid mine drainage, Butte MT  p. 246

1. heavy metals such as mercury, lead, tin, nickel, and cadmium.

2. a neighborhood that was abandoned as the mine expanded

 

Feedlot in Broken Bow, Nebraska  p. 251

1. These are irrigation circles, from center-pivot irrigators, which are described in chapter 17. They are generally about 0.5 miles in diameter, so the irrigator is about 0.25 miles long. The half-mile diameter reflects the land survey system, which divides the landscape on the basis of a square-mile grid.

2.  The landscape is mostly brown and dry, with the exception of irrigation circles that mark irrigated farmland. Because little land appears green outside the circles, it appears that this area receives little precipitation, and irrigation is responsible for most vegetation growth.

3. In these ponds, natural decomposition is intended to process waste; in a conventional municipal system, aerators, filters, and other treatment methods are used to remove wastes. The best municipal systems even remove nutrients.

 

 

Yamuna River, Delhi, India p. 251

1.  Fecal coliform counts in the Yamuna are on the order of 24 million colony-forming units per 100 ml water. If the pre-Delhi 7500 units are 37 times the level considered safe for swimming in the U.S., then swimmable waters should contain less than 200 colonies per 100 ml. (Some standards recommend 100 colonies per 100 ml.) The Yamuna therefore has approximately 12,000 times the EPA recommended levels.

2.   This treatment facility is the only one visible in this city of 13 million people. Much of the sewage generated by this city enters the river untreated. This problem is very common in developing countries.

3.  Fast-growing cities with low-income, migrant populations can generate relatively little tax income. Without income, the city has no funds to provide services needed by such dense populations. In addition, it takes years to build roads and install water and sewage pipes. Some developing cities expand by thousands of people per day, and this rate of expansion is extremely difficult to keep up with in the best of circumstances. Delhi is just one example of hundreds of growing cities with severe water supply and water quality problems.

 

Chapter 11

Environmental Geology and Earth Resources

 

Powder River Basin (Coal bed methane)p. 262

1. The population is low in a dry country like this, so it can be argued that the visible effects of drilling have little effect; at the same time, scars from drilling heal only slowly where vegetation grows slowly, so the effects may have long effect. Dry watersheds also cannot dillute the effect of salty brine added to streams. In an area where recreation-based tourism is increasingly important, this can be a serious concern for local economies as well as for the environment.

2. No, the gas wells extend in all directions and reach to the strip mines and past.

3. Coal derives from ancient peat bogs--accumulations of saturated plant debris in swamps and wetlands. This decayed organic matter has been compressed into rock-hard coal. Methane gas is also a decay product of organic matter that decays in the absence of oxygen, so methane is also a product of these ancient swamp deposits.

 

 

 Mountaintop removal  p. 271

1. The scar irregular in shape depending on the topography of the mountain and the shape of the coal seam.

2. At least 10 km

3. Northeastern West Virginia

4. The Appalachian Mountains

 

 Mount St. Helens  p. 275

1. Snow

2. The molten lava and hot ash are now buried deep in the volcano. When it erupts again, the snow will melt.

3. The eruption and ash fall were to the Northeast, away from Portland.

4. the mud flows look like melted wax (or mud) flowing down the mountain side

 

Barrier islands: Chandeleur Islands  p. 277

1. No, the barrier islands have shrunk since these boundary lines were drawn.

2. Farms, towns, and fishing settlements have lost substantial amounts of both wetlands and uplands. Some communities have disappeared altogether.

 

Chapter 12

Energy

 

 Aero Island, Denmark  p. 282 

1. Because the town is small and compact, it’s relatively efficient to pipe hot water to all buildings

2. The solar array is approximately 100 m x 150 m

3. Agricultural

4. There would be a large amount of agricultural waste (biomass) for fuel.

 

Jonah gas field, coal bed methane p. 289

1. Well pads

2. They are arranged in a rectilinear array to optimize gas extraction

3. They’re connected like beads on a string by service roads

4. The black spots are oily waste ponds left from well drilling

5. It doesn’t appear that two-thirds of the land is physically occupied by wells and roads, however the impacts (noise, pollution, etc) extend beyond the physical boundaries of the wells and roads.

 

Chernobyl nuclear plant  p. 291

1. in 1986

2. the cooling system failed, leading to overheating. An explosion exposed the graphite core to air, which allowed it to burn.

3. Kiev, the capital of Ukraine

 

Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository  p. 317

1. The arid environment results in a low population, which makes the site isolated. A lack of precipitation also reduces (but doesn’t eliminate) the chances that the underground site would flood. Chief worries have to do with the possibility of earthquakes. Geologists disagree on the likelihood of earthquake activity in the centuries and millennia ahead.

2. The circular features are nuclear bomb test sites. As you can see, there have been many tests in this area.

 

Solar facility, Barstow, CA  p. 300

1. Because this area of California has a dry, sunny climate.

2. the arrays of parabolic troughs most closely resemble the solar collectors for Marstal on Aero Island.

3. The mirrors in Solar Two are arranged in concentric rings around a central tower

4. Separating the solar pond into long, narrow compartments minimizes wind mixing of the water layers.

5. This is a research facility. The different types of collectors are placed close together so their output can be compared more accurately (cloud cover, air temperature, solar input) as well as to be more convenient for researchers.

 

Chapter 13

Solid and Hazardous Waste

 

Freshkills Landfill, NY  p. 308

1. They carried garbage from the big city across the river.

2. You have to zoom out to see all the landfill. It’s about 2 km from East to West and about 5 km from North to South. The active area is much smaller.

3. The stream is very turbid and silty. A freeway

4. Staten Island

Challenge question: “Kill” means stream, the term used by the early Dutch settlers of New York

 

Alang Beach shipbreakers, India p. 314

1. The sand and water are black from oil and other waste residues

2. A little over 100 m

3. Mumbai

4. There’s a market for recycled products, yet the breaking yards aren’t close enough for pollution to bother city residents.

Challenge question: The white features are salt-drying ponds. Salt is important in India’s history, because one of Mahatma Ghandi’s first major struggles for independence involved making salt this way to avoid the British salt tax.

 

  U.S. Superfund Sites  p. 322

All questions: answers depend on the site chosen.

 

 Love Canal, NY  p. 322

1. The houses were torn down at the Love Canal site.

2. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) was passed in response to Love Canal and similar problems. This act created the Superfund, which provides funding to clean up such toxic sites

3.  Expectations and standards for housing safety vary individually. The federal government has recently ruled that the houses are sufficiently safe.

 

Chapter 14

Economics and Urbanization

 

 Curitiba, Brazil  p. 329, 335

1. The city is extensive and dense, but its overall area is smaller than many American cities.

2. Curitiba has almost no shantytown neighborhoods, or favelas, which are abundant in Rio. Among the reasons for this difference are stronger planning, better investment in infrastructure, more equitable distribution of wealth, and much smaller influxes of impoverished populations in Curitiba than in Rio.

3. No, the middle section is smaller. This helps the very long buses turn more easily.

4. 25 degrees south. Montery, Mexico is one city at this latitude in the northern hemisphere.

 

  Shanghai  p. 330

1. Shanghai is on the eastern coast of China, where the Chang Jiang (Yangtze River) enters the Yellow Sea. This is a very strategic port position with access to Japan, Korea, and the Pacific Ocean.

2. The dozens of new skyscrapers in Pudong, across the river from the old city, make shadows visible in the image.

3. Pudong or Pootung

4. Chongming island is 0-4 m above sea level.

5. Pudong has much wider roads, more green or open space, and streets are more linear and regular than in the historic city around the Bund.

 

Urban planning and urban sprawl, Sun City and Salton City p. 334

1. Golf courses

2. Arizona

2. Distances to shopping areas are quite long, as are distances to the entrances to golf courses. Heavy reliance on driving can be a problem in a retirement community.

3. At least 35 km; yes, you could see these from space.

4. 33o N and 112o W

5. Yes, many of the houses have brown yards (no lawn), which saves on watering and is a regionally appropriate kind of landscaping.

 

6. Few people have chosen to build here. This would be a very peaceful place to live but also very isolated, with few services.

7. There are a number of neighborhoods with amusing street names.

8. The nearest water source is probably the canals that carry water to Palm Desert, at the north end of the Salton Sea.

 

Chapter 15

Environmental Policy and Sustainability

 

Shenzhen, China  p. 353, 371

1. yes, Shenzhen has many parks and tree-lined streets.

2. The city is full of large apartment blocks, which provides a lot of living space in a small geographic space.

3. Hong Kong; yes, this is one of the world’s largest hubs of international trade.

 

Tellico Dam  p. 356

1. The right (east) side is upstream: you can tell because the impounded river is wide and looks like a lake; downstream of the dam the river is narrow and looks more like a river.

2. Knoxville

3. This location is in a rural area that is not widely known or highly populated. Often major policy debates are decided according to precedents established in these obscure locations and cases.

 

Yellowstone National Park  p. 359

1. Old Faithful, which is famous for its tall plumes of steam that occur several times daily.

2. An extensive network of sidewalks, roads, parking lots, lodges, and service buildings is needed to accommodate tourists.

3. Yellowstone Lake is 2,357 m above sea level.

Challenge question: The lake is rainwater collected in an ancient caldera. (A caldera is a collapsed volcanic crater.)

 

Kissimmee River channelization  p. 294

1. The narrow winding channel of the natural river impedes water flow and allows it to seep into adjacent wetlands. The wide, straight channel of the ditch speeds water to the sea.

2. Because the old river winds back and forth across the new ditch, there isn’t a single place at which you could block the ditch and divert the water back into the original channel. It will have to be done at many places.

3. It’s probably a control structure to regulate flow in the ditch.

 

Rio, site of Earth Summit  p. 362

1. Rio is hundreds of km away from the Amazon basin.

2. the region around Rio is mainly deforested mountains.

3. Restrictions on greenhouse gases were one of the most important topics discussed at the 1992 meeting, although many issues were raised.